The Papal States is a country on the Italian penisula composed of states ruled by the Pope, with its capital being Rome.
During the 15-16th centuries, the Papal States grew closer diplomatic relations with France and Austria, advising both the Austrian and French kings to end their rivalry with each other, especially as the Reformation ramped up during the late 15th century.
The Reformation Edit
In 1497, with the Protestant Reformation rising throughout all of Europe, the major Catholic powers, including some members of the Holy Roman Empire, were invited to the Italian city of Milan for the new Council of Milan, to combat the Reformation. Eventually the Counter-Reformation was formed, and all Catholic nations were required to implement it.
England refused, converting to Protestantism in response. Austria then fought a long war against its many Protestants in Transylvania. It was during this period that a Protestant League was formed, consisting of the nations Russia, Spain, Holland, Sicily, Denmark, Naples, Serbia, Venice and other Protestants minors in the Holy Roman Empire. The Papal States responded by forming the Catholic League, consisting of France, Ireland, Austria, Portugal and most of the HRE.
The Catholic and Protestant Leagues fought in the Great League War, resulting in the loss of millions of lives. The war, starting in 1512 and lasting through to 1629, was the longest war in history, finally ending in a decisive Catholic victory, and pushing the Protestant Germans back into the Rhineland, and kicking the Protestant Neapolitans back into Sicily.
The Renaissance Edit
The Papal States flourished through the Renaissance, being the home of many famous artists. During the period, there was even a Papal colony founded in the Peruvian region, called the Vultar Order, or simply Vultaria.